Dead River: An Environmental History of the Tyne Improvement Commission 1850-1968CE

Download this article (includes footnotes and bibliography)Download For men may come and men may go,But I go on forever.- Alfred Tennyson, ‘The Brook’. Introduction The Significance of River History When searching for a location to build a home, the humans who founded the first settlements on the Tyne had several priorities in mind. First and … Continue reading Dead River: An Environmental History of the Tyne Improvement Commission 1850-1968CE

Power and Politics in Medieval Iberia: What Primary Sources can tell us about Rulers and Ruled

Download this article (includes footnotes and bibliography)Download The historian’s enigma is to extract a logical and reliable narrative from material that is generally neither of those things. This statement is especially true for medieval primary sources which are rightfully considered articles whose information must be assessed with particular scrutiny. The often-sparse number of medieval sources … Continue reading Power and Politics in Medieval Iberia: What Primary Sources can tell us about Rulers and Ruled

The Death of a New World: Disease and Population Decline In South America from 1492 to 1800CE

Download this article (includes footnotes and bibliography)Download Preface: A Subject of Scale In its whole, the story of population in South America from 1492 to 1800CE is one of demographic collapse. At the low point of this period the continent would be witness to a population that reached but 1/5th the size of its pre-Columbian … Continue reading The Death of a New World: Disease and Population Decline In South America from 1492 to 1800CE

The Conquest of Mesoamerica

On the 13th of August 1521, the most powerful leader in Mesoamerica, the Aztec emperor Cuauhtémoc, surrendered to Hernán Cortés, thus marking the beginning of a colonial dominance in the region that would last for nearly 400 years. Yet, at the time of its surrender, the Aztec empire’s population consisted of c. 5,000,000 people whereas … Continue reading The Conquest of Mesoamerica

The Generalising Crisis of the 17th Century

‘The mid-seventeenth century experienced a “general crisis” in which a wave of economic, social and political upheavals swept over many parts of the northern hemisphere’ (Parker, 2001, p.20) To accurately assess this statement, it is necessary to first define the term ‘general crisis’. For the purposes of this article the definition used herein has been … Continue reading The Generalising Crisis of the 17th Century

The 17th Century Economic and Political Crises Compared

The problem with the debate around ‘the general crisis of the 17th century’ arose as soon as the phrase was put to paper, it’s the same problem that plagues debates over ‘brexit’, the central term is nebulous. Historians must decide for themselves what ‘general’ refers to, which causes great conflict like that we see between … Continue reading The 17th Century Economic and Political Crises Compared

Castle Howard: Baroque Architecture and the Theatre of Reality

Castle Howard is not actually a castle, but rather a stately home, situated in the Yorkshire countryside. It was designed by the famous Sir John Vanburgh, who is often referred to as the father of the ‘English Baroque’ style. The estate still remains in the possession of the Howard family today and has done so … Continue reading Castle Howard: Baroque Architecture and the Theatre of Reality

When the Subaltern Spoke

In the mid-20th century, social history, by which we mean social historiography, saw a major alteration in its focus. It shiftedaway from 19th century Marxist interpretations of a form that concentrated on ‘society’ and the lives of workers who had been underrepresented in favour of a small elite. Its new focus looked instead toward specific … Continue reading When the Subaltern Spoke